The latest Intune updates introduce the ability to rename Windows 10 devices (1809 [aka RS4] and later).
When using the feature, the next time the Windows 10 client connects to Intune his name will be changed.
To start using it, logon to your Intune tenant either from the Azure portal (https://portal.azure.com) or your Devices Management portal (https://devicemanagement.microsoft.com/) and go to the Devices blade
Then select All Devices and locate the Windows 10 device you want to rename
Then either use the More\Rename device menu from the Overview blade or the Rename button available on the right side of the device name in the Properties blade
You can either ‘fix’ the name or use variables like serial number
The Windows computer name limitations still apply; like less than 15 characters for the computer name
You can also force to restart the device immediately after the renaming operation; if you do not request to restart after the rename operation, end-user will then have to do it to complete
NOTE there is no notification to the end-user a rename operation is pending and need a restart
Pending rename operation is then showing up with a blue banner when access the device overview; the Properties blade does not notify anything and still show the ‘previous’ name
Then once the operation is completed, a notification is shown in the portal