Following my previous post about issues whit SkyDrive Pro which is not able to sync content from SharePoint 2010 (http://blog.hametbenoit.info/2012/07/26/office-issues-with-sky-drive-pro-beta/), here is the solution.
Ensure that any Office processes is not running, especially groove.exe, msosync.exe, msouc.exe, winword.exe, ecel.exe, powerpnt.exe.
Then open Windows explorer and browse to C:\Users\%username%\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Office\Spw and C:\Users\%username%\AppData\Local\Microsoft\Office\15.0\OfficeFileCache to delete all their content.
Since then, SkyDrive Pro is now able to sync SharePoint 2010 content. IMPORTANT you have to reconfigure what you want to keep available offline.